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Bitcoin stuck on broken wallet
I keep my bitcoin on a wallet on my Linux partition; recently, it failed to synchronize. I've tried sending a small test transaction to a wallet I have on my Windows partition; but the transaction never arrived. Is there any way to access my bitcoin from my Windows wallet, without needing to send it over in the form of a transaction?
(Upvote to the top) > SOLUTION FOR ZCLASSIC Eleos Wallet: "Wallet daemon can not be run. Check if daemon does not already run"
So I noticed a lot of people recently (including myself) are experiencing the error "Wallet daemon can not be run. Check if daemon does not already run" when trying to open up their ZCL Eleos wallet, and people are unable to access their funds or cannot export their private keys as well. A solution to this is now official (thanks to JBrutWhat from the BTCP team for helping me out on this.) Note: Post is being edited as more info becomes available to me. This solution also works for users who are on the ZClassic Swing wallet experiencing the error "A general unexpected critical error has occurred: error: Couldn't connect to server, see the console output for more detailed error information!." Eleos Wallet Troubleshooting section
The Wallet.dat file from the Eleos wallet or Swing wallet DOES NOT work with Zclassic electrum, so we are going to import the private key of the wallet into electrum instead.
Navigate to the c:\users\username\appdata\roaming\zclassic folder and copy the wallet.dat file from there, back it up somewhere.
Paste the wallet.dat you backed up earlier into the same folder as the walletaid tool folder
Right click the config.ini file and edit the file using notepad or notepad++ or your own text editor
remove the "#" symbol from the zclassic sections under "#Pubkeyprefix list" and "#privkeyprefix list"
copy the text "1cb8" and replace the "00" under the pubkeyprefix section under "[settings]" at the top
Doubleclick the walletaid.py file and press enter. Let it create the entire file with ALL the wallet addresses from your wallet.dat file. Or you could paste in the exact address you want and it should export a foundkeys.txt file into the walletaid directory. (The extract keys.bat file doesn't always work. It didn't work for me.) NOTE: If the walletaid.py script opens and instantly closes, this is because your wallet.dat file has a different name. Please rename your wallet file back to "wallet.dat" for compatibility.
Open up the foundkeys.txt file and it should list out every detected address and it's corresponding private key from your wallet.dat file you pasted in earlier
Do a ctrl + F and paste in the wallet address that contains your funds.
Locate the wallet address you are looking for and it's corresponding private key. We'll come back to this later.
IMPORTANT: MAKE SURE YOU DELETE THE PRIVATE KEYS FILE FROM YOUR COMPUTER AFTER FINISHING WITH IT. BACK IT UP TO AN OFFLINE USB STICK. DO NOT KEEP IT ON YOUR DESKTOP/HARD DRIVES OR ONLINE. Your private keys can potentially compromise ALL of your funds. Keep this safe and NEVER share it with anybody.
For users that are experiencing problems syncing their Electrum ZCL wallets, or their transactions are showing "not verified" after importing a wallet, this is because the blockchain_headers have not been successfully downloaded. We'll have to delete them let it re-sync. For Windows users, first close the electrum wallet. Then navigate to C:\Users\UsernameXXX\Appdata\Roaming\Electrum-ZCL\ and from there delete ONLY the "blockchain_headers" file. Then re-open the wallet and allow it to sync. For Mac OS users, close the wallet and navigate to ~/.electrum-zcl/ and delete ONLY the blockchain_headers file once again. Then reopen the wallet. Please see github issue #77 thread here for more help.
Create a new standard wallet and restore the 2FA wallet using your "seed" codes. DO NOT password protect this wallet.
Disable the 2FA feature when presented with the option.
Navigate to C:/Users/YOUR-NAME/AppData/Roaming/Electrum-zcl/wallets. Open the new standard wallet file with Notepad.
You will need to gather the 2 private keys and one public key. To find this easily, press “CTRL+F” and search for “xprv”. Copy the 2 “xprv” values as well as the last “xpub” value. You will need these in a later step.
Create a new “Multi-signature wallet”. Select “From 3 co-signers” on the first slider. Select “Require 2 signatures” on the second slider.
To add the first co-signer, click “Use public or private keys”. Enter the first xprv key in this box.
Add the second co-signer via a private key also.
Add the third co-signer with the public key. Complete the set-up.
Your wallet funds now have the ability to be sent from the multi-signature wallet.
It's recommended by the BTCP team to switch over to the ZCLASSIC Electrum wallet ASAP as the Eleos wallet has become unstable now. The original ZClassic swing wallet is reported to still be working. Up to you whether or not to use the electrum wallet, but I'd personally recommend it.
Open up the wallet and create a new wallet, then when it gives you the option to import private keys, paste in your appropriate private key from the foundkeys.txt file we generated earlier.
Afterwards, your wallet should have successfully migrated your wallet into the ZCL electrum wallet. There's currently a synchronization issue upon first boot of the wallet, so close and re-open it again and you should be fine. If not, try closing the electrum wallet, navigate to "c:\users\username\appdata\roaming\Electrum-zcl folder and delete the "blockchain_headers file, as initial download of the blockchain headers sometimes initially fails. Then restart the wallet and you should be fine, according to the dev team.
Users of older ZCL electrum wallets before version 1.0.3 should download the latest version. I was on the older version (1.0.0 and noticed my wallet wouldn't sync.) So I upgraded to the latest version and wallet has successfully synced.
Also make sure to encrypt your electrum wallet by clicking the little settings icon at the bottom right.
For Users who were already using the Electrum wallet beforehand, you can go to file > new/restore wallet > next > import zclassic private keys and input the private key you obtained from the walletaid tool, and it should import the wallet into the electrum wallet. Then from there, go to file > backup wallet and export a copy of the wallet.dat file onto an offline USB.
Side notes: ZCL-Electrum wallet Does support mining directly to it. More ZCL Electrum servers will be added along with newer releases soon. Another note: Every time you want to migrate funds from one address to another, test it with a small amount first before proceeding with the full amount. BTCP Team has also partnered with Coinomi to release a wallet supporting ZCL and BTCP after the hard fork occurs.
Reminder: Backup and delete the private keys file from your desktop pc/hard drive, move it into an offline USB for safekeeping. Do not leave it on an online device. Donate to me if you found the guide useful! Your donations 100% voluntary but they are greatly appreciated and keep us going! ZCL: t1fkxCWJs3f2oXznGwZuEgftJ2SCjYZ8VjZ BTC: 14Xmfm9jf4h1h4RXZBQCFK6i4LWibqWVPu LTC: LhAERgWcjbbXQbGqjhy4owALGhwfpj1aw2 ETH: 0xe723305337926e1fcb5dd0495e6648569a252c13 BCH: 1JXqLHqjYH8bew38AXwEt9dmKvsdYwLtvr LINKS (You can join the discord rooms where there are channels for users looking for help)
[PSA] Dogecoin Wallet version 1.4 released. You must update.
WARNING: DO NOT send your wallet.dat file or dogecoin folder to anyone. There have been reports of people offering to help others by asking them to send their files to them so they can help. DO NOT do this. Scam attempt picture Always encrypt your wallet! I can't express this enough. You should use a strong password longer than 15 characters. This password should contain numbers, symbols, and some capitalization! There is no need to have your wallet open 24 hours a day. Open it only when you need it. See - 'Getting Started' on the side bar. This entire post has been written to be as close to ELI5 (Explain it like I'm 5) as possible - By request! If anyone wants to add/fix/correct anything in this message, please send a message to the mods <<-- Click blue text. All blue text in this post can be clicked on. The blue text is a link to a picture, site or download file. A very important message/reminder below. 25 Jan 1.5 pre-releases have started. http://www.reddit.com/dogecoin/comments/1uhpwf/dogecoin_for_mac_14_topic_thread/ OLD VERSIONS The 1.4 update for the dogecoin wallet has been released. This update addresses the block chain error that occurred. This update is mandatory meaning you have to do this update. Also further down the page you can read up about the block chain. You MUST make sure you're on the correct block chain and the old block chain has been removed. For a Windows computer the version must be 1.4. - 1.4.1 just released! See below For a Apple Mac Computer the version must be 1.4 Download links: [Windows Download Link](https://github.com/dogecoin/dogecoin/releases/download/1.4/dogecoin-qt-v14-Win.zip) <<--Click to start download Windows Download Link 1.4.1 UPDATED 19JAN Mac Download Link <<--Click to start download Mac users can join this thread if there are any problems Android (phone): Please see This post To update, simply download the new version from the download link above. Open the downloaded file and extract the contents of the downloaded file into any new folder or location on your computer. If you put the files into a folder you can name the folder anything you want but make sure you remember that this is the latest version of the software. You don't have to remove your folder containing the old version of the wallet. You can place it in a folder called 'Old versions of dogecoin wallet' if you like. Now you can click on the Dogecoin icon contained in the new folder to open your version 1.4 wallet. What happens if I get an error when I open the new wallet? An error was reported called "11DbException" If this happens Download this file and place it in the same folder as your updated wallet. Open the file you just downloaded called "Dogecoin OPEN' and wait. This might take 2 or 3 minutes. Also jtlarousse has found a solution that worked on Windows. Please follow carefully and make backups before starting. Reebzy might have found a solution for Apple Mac Blockchain fork 101: The block chain is a ledger or document created containing every transaction that has ever happened. This file can be quite large. Bitcoins ledger is over 15GB. At some point this document/ledger split into two separate documents known as a fork. How do I know if I am on the right block chain? Go to your newly updated dogecoin wallet and open it. Click on Help>>Debug next Observe the current block number *Notetheexamplenumbersinthepicturesmightbeoutofdatebythetimeyoureadthem Now go over to http://dogechain.info/chain/Dogecoin . This website is the official Dogecoin blockchain website. Check the block number they're reporting The number you found in your wallet and the number reported on the website should close. There might be a difference of 100 blocks depending on when you last refreshed your wallet or how long it took for you to get from one step to the next step in this guide and if the dogechain website is lagging. I'M NOT ON THE CORRECT BLOCK CHAIN My numbers are very different. How do I get back onto the right block chain? IMPORTANT For windows: 1)Close down the Dogecoin wallet client. 2)Go to your data folder: C:\Users[your windows log-in name]\AppData\Roaming\DogeCoin 3)Delete the Dogecoin.conf file. Do not delete the wallet.dat file! 4)Download this update file and place it into the Dogecoin folder where the other file was deleted. For Apple Mac: 1)Close down the Dogecoin wallet client. 2)Go to your data folder: ~/Libarary/Application Support/Dogecoin 3)Delete the Dogecoin.conf file. Do not delete the wallet.dat file! 4)Download this update file and place it into the Dogecoin folder where the other file was deleted. Next visit this post by Netcodepool for instructions on how to manually download the correct block chain and install it.
Edit: Some posts were removed from this thread. To limit confusion. Check this post for details about mining pools that were/are using the wrong fork. Did you send coins only to find out you're on the wrong chain? See this post to get them back An Apple Mac support thread has been made by voidref (The mac developer). If you're having troubles please see this thread Some shibes have reported their wallets wont sync. Please check to make sure your firewall, antivirus, malware scanner or similar programs are not blocking it the wallet. You can add rules to these programs to allow the wallet to make contact with the internet. It's not advised but possible to also disable the software for a short amount of time. Don't forget to enable the software again afterwards. Is your wallet crashing? Try this helpful tip from gandhikahn or if you're using windows try the 1.4.1 update above.
This thread is for users to find information that is spread across many threads since zcash4win and zcash4mac are now depreciated. What happened: David Mercer the developer who worked on zcash4win and zcash4mac has decided stop allowing downloads of these (which are stuck on old versions) so it doesn't confuse new users since they not up-to-date. David is not part of Zcash Company and his software is open source. The only "Official" Zcash software is the Linux version. Why Rather than continue to update the zcash4win and zcash4mac code he has decided to create new wallet/node software from the ground up so it will be a better codebase/GUI and easier to update for the future. The new version will be called "winzec" and available at winzec.com when it is done. What does this mean for zcash4win and zcash4mac users? If you are currently running zcash4win or zcash4mac you don't need to do anything. The zcash4win and zcash4mac are just not available to download, they will continue to work until the Hard Fork expected in a few months. Are the funds I have in zcash4win or zcash4mac lost? No, remember the way all Blockchains like Zcash and Bitcoin work is that coins are on the Blockchain at all times. Your wallet has the Public and Private keys that allow you to spend from the addresses you control. Help my wallet won't start! Since the zcash4win version is version 1.0.12 (and the latest version is 1.0.15) you need to add disabledeprecation=1.0.12 to the configuration file as explained in this thread: https://forum.z.cash/t/required-config-change-for-zcash4win-1-0-12/26632 There is a Video of how to do this Here: https://youtu.be/VT06Nh6TTzw This will keep the node from auto-depreciation and allow you to still use it until a the new version comes out or the Hard Fork when you will need to switch wallets. If you do the above steps and it still won't sync you may have to reindex your chain: Open a Command window and try: C:\Program Files\zcash4win\app\zcashd.exe -reindex -daemon=0 NOTE: The above line is just an example and will need to be tweaked depending on your computers users/app location/etc.. If you are not familiar with how to run something from a Command line please see this tutorial: https://m.wikihow.com/Run-a-Program-on-Command-Prompt What if I want to switch wallets? To switch wallets you first need to determine if you want to use or have funds in a private address. If you don't have funds in a private address and don't want to use private addresses then you can transfer your funds to many other wallets like Jaxx or a hardware wallet like a Ledger Nano. I have a list of wallets here: https://www.zcashcommunity.com/wallets/ If you do have funds in a private address and don't want to send them to a transparent address read on: Step 1 is setting up a new full node. You can install the Zcash Official Linux Client via this guide: https://github.com/zcash/zcash/wiki/1.0-User-Guide There are several Videos on how install Zcash on Linux here: https://youtu.be/5ahQZZYcntQhttps://youtu.be/9-P7IHC7d-ohttps://youtu.be/noiPWhPT6sk I have an very old written step-by-step tutorial about how to set up a VM and install Linux & Zcash here: https://minezcash.com/how-to-mine-zcash-part1/ (just ignore the last "mining steps) Step 2 Is once you have a new Node running you have two choices: You can generate a new address to send the funds to the new wallet or transfer the wallet.dat file to the new node. Instructions to get a backup of your wallet from zcash4win are here: https://youtu.be/JGtpUnHTf2w You can use that wallet.dat to restore your funds to any full node wallet Linux Windows or Mac. The best part about running a the official client is that you can update as soon as an update is available directly from the Zcash developers! No more waiting for third party developers to push an update. While you are here, take a second to backup your wallet.dat file to somewhere safe, preferably offline or on a separate computeUSB so in case of disaster you won't lose everything. Please feel free to post questions in this thread, new threads on this subject will be closed and re-directed to this thread.
What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space?
How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus?
What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement this?
What is Nexus’ Unified Time protocol?
Why does Nexus need its own satellite network?
The Nexus Currency:
How can I get Nexus?
How much does a transaction cost?
How fast does Nexus transfer?
Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded?
Is there a cap on the number of Nexus in existence?
What is the difference between the Oracle wallet and the LLD wallet?
How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet?
How do I install the Nexus Wallet?
Types of Mining or Minting:
Can I mine Nexus?
How do I mine Nexus?
How do I stake Nexus?
I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are trust weight, block weight and stake weight?
1. What is Nexus (NXS)? Nexus is a digital currency, distributed framework, and peer-to-peer network. Nexus further improves upon the blockchain protocol by focusing on the following core technological principles:
Nexus will combine our in-development quantum-resistant 3D blockchain software with cutting edge communication satellites to deliver a free, distributed, financial and data solution. Through our planned satellite and ground-based mesh networks, Nexus will provide uncensored internet access whilst bringing the benefits of distributed database systems to the world. For a short video introduction to Nexus Earth, please visit this link
2. What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space? As Nexus has been developed, an incredible amount of time has been put into identifying and solving several key limitations:
Quantum computing vulnerability
Centralized network access
Slow difficulty adjustment
Slow block times
Block reward halving
Nexus is also developing a framework called the Lower Level Library. This LLL will incorporate the following improvements:
LLC (Lower Level Cryptography): This is a suite of cutting edge cryptographic methods including hashing, asymmetric encryption, digital signatures, and symmetric encryption algorithms
LLP (Lower Level Protocol): This is a template protocol to allow any protocol to be created with ease without the need for repeated network programming.
LLD (Lower Level Database): This is a set of templates for creating high efficiency database systems. This high efficiency can be used to power large websites, which are currently built with database software that is not designed to scale.
For information about more additions to the Lower Level Library, please visit here
3. How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus? Nexus is unique amongst blockchain technology in that Nexus uses 3 channels to secure the network against attack. Whereas Bitcoin uses only Proof-of-Work to secure the network, Nexus combines a prime number channel, a hashing channel and a Proof-of-Stake channel. Where Bitcoin has a difficulty adjustment interval measured in weeks, Nexus can respond to increased hashrate in the space of 1 block and each channel scales independently of the other two channels. This stabilizes the block times at ~50 seconds and ensures no single channel can monopolize block production. This means that a 51% attack is much more difficult to launch because an attacker would need to control all 3 channels. Every 60 minutes, the Nexus protocol automatically creates a checkpoint. This prevents blocks from being created or modified dated prior to this checkpoint, thus protecting the chain from malicious attempts to introduce an alternate blockchain.
4. What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement it? To understand what quantum resistance is and why it is important, you need to understand how quantum computing works and why it’s a threat to blockchain technology. Classical computing uses an array of transistors. These transistors form the heart of your computer (the CPU). Each transistor is capable of being either on or off, and these states are used to represent the numerical values 1 and 0. Binary digits’ (bits) number of states depends on the number of transistors available, according to the formula 2n, where n is the number of transistors. Classical computers can only be in one of these states at any one time, so the speed of your computer is limited to how fast it can change states. Quantum computers utilize quantum bits, “qubits,” which are represented by the quantum state of electrons or photons. These particles are placed into a state called superposition, which allows the qubit to assume a value of 1 or 0 simultaneously. Superposition permits a quantum computer to process a higher number of data possibilities than a classical computer. Qubits can also become entangled. Entanglement makes a qubit dependant on the state of another, enabling quantum computing to calculate complex problems, extremely quickly. One such problem is the Discrete Logarithm Problem which elliptic curve cryptography relies on for security. Quantum computers can use Shor’s algorithm to reverse a key in polynomial time (which is really really really fast). This means that public keys become vulnerable to quantum attack, since quantum computers are capable of being billions of times faster at certain calculations. One way to increase quantum resistance is to require more qubits (and more time) by using larger private keys: Bitcoin Private Key (256 bit) 5Kb8kLf9zgWQnogidDA76MzPL6TsZZY36hWXMssSzNydYXYB9KF Nexus Private Key (571 bit) 6Wuiv513R18o5cRpwNSCfT7xs9tniHHN5Lb3AMs58vkVxsQdL4atHTF Vt5TNT9himnCMmnbjbCPxgxhSTDE5iAzCZ3LhJFm7L9rCFroYoqz Bitcoin addresses are created by hashing the public key, so it is not possible to decrypt the public key from the address; however, once you send funds from that address, the public key is published on the blockchain rendering that address vulnerable to attack. This means that your money has higher chances of being stolen. Nexus eliminates these vulnerabilities through an innovation called signature chains. Signature chains will enable access to an account using a username, password and PIN. When you create a transaction on the network, you claim ownership of your signature chain by revealing the public key of the NextHash (the hash of your public key) and producing a signature from the one time use private key. Your wallet then creates a new private/public keypair, generates a new NextHash, including the corresponding contract. This contract can be a receive address, a debit, a vote, or any other type of rule that is written in the contract code. This keeps the public key obscured until the next transaction, and by divorcing the address from the public key, it is unnecessary to change addresses in order to change public keys. Changing your password or PIN code becomes a case of proving ownership of your signature chain and broadcasting a new transaction with a new NextHash for your new password and/or PIN. This provides the ability to login to your account via the signature chain, which becomes your personal chain within the 3D chain, enabling the network to prove and disprove trust, and improving ease of use without sacrificing security. The next challenge with quantum computers is that Grover’s algorithm reduces the security of one-way hash function by a factor of two. Because of this, Nexus incorporates two new hash functions, Skein and Keccak, which were designed in 2008 as part of a contest to create a new SHA3 standard. Keccak narrowly defeated Skein to win the contest, so to maximize their potential Nexus combines these algorithms. Skein and Keccak utilize permutation to rotate and mix the information in the hash. To maintain a respective 256/512 bit quantum resistance, Nexus uses up to 1024 bits in its proof-of-work, and 512 bits for transactions.
5. What is the Unified Time protocol? All blockchains use time-stamping mechanisms, so it is important that all nodes operate using the same clock. Bitcoin allows for up to 2 hours’ discrepancy between nodes, which provides a window of opportunity for the blockchain to be manipulated by time-related attack vectors. Nexus eliminates this vulnerability by implementing a time synchronization protocol termed Unified Time. Unified Time also enhances transaction processing and will form an integral part of the 3D chain scaling solution. The Unified Time protocol facilitates a peer-to-peer timing system that keeps all clocks on the network synchronized to within a second. This is seeded by selected nodes with timestamps derived from the UNIX standard; that is, the number of seconds since January 1st, 1970 00:00 UTC. Every minute, the seed nodes report their current time, and a moving average is used to calculate the base time. Any node which sends back a timestamp outside a given tolerance is rejected. It is important to note that the Nexus network is fully synchronized even if an individual wallet displays something different from the local time.
6. Why does Nexus need its own satellite network? One of the key limitations of a purely electronic monetary system is that it requires a connection to the rest of the network to verify transactions. Existing network infrastructure only services a fraction of the world’s population. Nexus, in conjunction with Vector Space Systems, is designing communication satellites, or cubesats, to be launched into Low Earth Orbit in 2019. Primarily, the cubesat mesh network will exist to give Nexus worldwide coverage, but Nexus will also utilize its orbital and ground mesh networks to provide free and uncensored internet access to the world.
The Nexus Currency (NXS):
1. How can I get Nexus? There are two ways you can obtain Nexus. You can either buy Nexus from an exchange, or you can run a miner and be rewarded for finding a block. If you wish to mine Nexus, please follow our guide found below. Currently, Nexus is available on the following exchanges:
Bittrex (99% of trade volume)
Upbit (South Korea)
Nexus is actively reaching out to other exchanges to continue to be listed on cutting edge new financial technologies..
2. How much does a transaction cost? Under Nexus, the fee structure for making a transaction depends on the size of your transaction. A default fee of 0.01 NXS will cover most transactions, and users have the option to pay higher fees to ensure their transactions are processed quickly. When the 3D chain is complete and the initial 10-year distribution period finishes, Nexus will absorb these fees through inflation, enabling free transactions.
3. How fast does Nexus transfer? Nexus reaches consensus approximately every ~ 50 seconds. This is an average time, and will in some circumstances be faster or slower. NXS currency which you receive is available for use after just 6 confirmations. A confirmation is proof from a node that the transaction has been included in a block. The number of confirmations in this transaction is the number that states how many blocks it has been since the transaction is included. The more confirmations a transaction has, the more secure its placement in the blockchain is.
4. Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded? The Nexus Embassy, a 501(C)(3) not-for-profit corporation, develops and maintains the Nexus blockchain software. When Nexus began under the name Coinshield, the early blocks were mined using the Developer and Exchange (Ambassador) addresses, which provides funding for the Nexus Embassy. The Developer Fund fuels ongoing development and is sourced by a 1.5% commission per block mined, which will slowly increase to 2.5% after 10 years. This brings all the benefits of development funding without the associated risks. The Ambassador (renamed from Exchange) keys are funded by a 20% commission per block reward. These keys are mainly used to pay for marketing, and producing and launching the Nexus satellites. When Nexus introduces developer and ambassador contracts, they will be approved, denied, or removed by six voting groups namely: currency, developer, ambassador, prime, hash, and trust. Please Note: The Nexus Embassy reserves the sole right to trade, sell and or use these funds as required; however, Nexus will endeavor to minimize the impact that the use of these funds has upon the NXS market value.
5. Is there a cap on the number of NXS in existence? After an initial 10-year distribution period ending on September 23rd, 2024, there will be a total of 78 million NXS. Over this period, the reward gradient for mining Nexus follows a decaying logarithmic curve instead of the reward halving inherent in Bitcoin. This avoids creating a situation where older mining equipment is suddenly unprofitable, encouraging miners to continue upgrading their equipment over time and at the same time reducing major market shocks on block halving events. When the distribution period ends, the currency supply will inflate annually by a maximum of 3% via staking and by 1% via the prime and hashing channels. This inflation is completely unlike traditional inflation, which degrades the value of existing coins. Instead, the cost of providing security to the blockchain is paid by inflation, eliminating transaction fees. Colin Cantrell - Nexus Inflation Explained
6. What is the difference between the LLD wallet and the Oracle wallet? Due to the scales of efficiency needed by blockchain, Nexus has developed a custom-built database called the Lower Level Database. Since the development of the LLD wallet 0.2.3.1, which is a precursor to the Tritium updates, you should begin using the LLD wallet to take advantage of the faster load times and improved efficiency. The Oracle wallet is a legacy wallet which is no longer maintained or updated. It utilized the Berkeley DB, which is not designed to meet the needs of a blockchain. Eventually, users will need to migrate to the LLD wallet. Fortunately, the wallet.dat is interchangeable between wallets, so there is no risk of losing access to your NXS.
7. How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet? Step 1 - Backup your wallet.dat file. You can do this from within the Oracle wallet Menu, Backup Wallet. Step 2 - Uninstall the Oracle wallet. Close the wallet and navigate to the wallet data directory. On Windows, this is the Nexus folder located at %APPDATA%\Nexus. On macOS, this is the Nexus folder located at ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus. Move all of the contents to a temporary folder as a backup. Step 3 - Copy your backup of wallet.dat into the Nexus folder located as per Step 2. Step 4 - Install the Nexus LLD wallet. Please follow the steps as outlined in the next section. Once your wallet is fully synced, your new wallet will have access to all your addresses.
8. How do I install the Nexus Wallet? You can install your Nexus wallet by following these steps: Step 1 - Download your wallet from www.nexusearth.com. Click the Downloads menu at the top and select the appropriate wallet for your operating system. Step 2 - Unzip the wallet program to a folder. Before running the wallet program, please consider space limitations and load times. On the Windows OS, the wallet saves all data to the %APPDATA%\Nexus folder, including the blockchain, which is currently ~3GB. On macOS, data is saved to the ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus folder. You can create a symbolic link, which will allow you to install this information in another location. Using Windows, follow these steps:
Step 3 (optional) - Before running the wallet, we recommend downloading the blockchain database manually. Nexus Earth maintains a copy of the blockchain data which can save hours from the wallet synchronization process. Please go to www.nexusearth.com and click the Downloads menu. Step 4 (optional) - Extract the database file. This is commonly found in the .zip or .rar format, so you may need a program like 7zip to extract the contents. Please extract it to the relevant directory, as outlined in step 2. Step 5 - You can now start your wallet. After it loads, it should be able to complete synchronization in a short time. This may still take a couple of hours. Once it has completed synchronizing, a green check mark icon will appear in the lower right corner of the wallet. Step 6 - Encrypt your wallet. This can be done within the wallet, under the Settings menu. Encrypting your wallet will lock it, requiring a password in order to send transactions. Step 7 - Backup your wallet.dat file. This can be done from the File menu inside the wallet. This file contains the keys to the addresses in your wallet. You may wish to keep a secure copy of your password somewhere, too, in case you forget it or someone else (your spouse, for example) ever needs it. You should back up your wallet.dat file again any time you create – or a Genesis transaction creates (see “staking” below) – a new address.
Types of Mining or Minting:
1.Can I mine Nexus? Yes, there are 2 channels that you can use to mine Nexus, and 1 channel of minting: Prime Mining Channel This mining channel looks for a special prime cluster of a set length. This type of calculation is resistant to ASIC mining, allowing for greater decentralization. This is most often performed using the CPU. Hashing Channel This channel utilizes the more traditional method of hashing. This process adds a random nonce, hashes the data, and compares the resultant hash against a predetermined format set by the difficulty. This is most often performed using a GPU. Proof of Stake (nPoS) Staking is a form of mining NXS. With this process, you can receive NXS rewards from the network for continuously operating your node (wallet). It is recommended that you only stake with a minimum balance of 1000 NXS. It’s not impossible to stake with less, but it becomes harder to maintain trust. Losing trust resets the interest rate back to 0.5% per annum.
2. How do I mine Nexus? As outlined above, there are two types of mining and 1 proof of stake. Each type of mining uses a different component of your computer to find blocks, the CPU or the GPU. Nexus supports CPU and GPU mining on Windows only. There are also third-party macOS builds available. Please follow the instructions below for the relevant type of miner.
Prime Mining: Almost every CPU is capable of mining blocks on this channel. The most effective method of mining is to join a mining pool and receive a share of the rewards based on the contribution you make. To create your own mining facility, you need the CPU mining software, and a NXS address. This address cannot be on an exchange. You create an address when you install your Nexus wallet. You can find the related steps under How Do I Install the Nexus Wallet? Please download the relevant miner from http://nexusearth.com/mining.html. Please note that there are two different miner builds available: the prime solo miner and the prime pool miner. This guide will walk you through installing the pool miner only. Step 1 - Extract the archive file to a folder. Step 2 - Open the miner.conf file. You can use the default host and port, but these may be changed to a pool of your choice. You will need to change the value of nxs_address to the address found in your wallet. Sieve_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to use to find primes. Ptest_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to test the primes found by the sieve. As a general rule, the number of threads used for the sieve should be 75% of the threads used for testing. It is also recommended to add the following line to the options found in the .conf file: "experimental" : "true" This option enables the miner to use an improved sieve algorithm which will enable your miner to find primes at a faster rate. Step 3 - Run the nexus_cpuminer.exe file. For a description of the information shown in this application, please read this guide.
Hashing: The GPU is a dedicated processing unit housed on-board your graphics card. The GPU is able to perform certain tasks extremely well, unlike your CPU, which is designed for parallel processing. Nexus supports both AMD and Nvidia GPU mining, and works best on the newer models. Officially, Nexus does not support GPU pool mining, but there are 3rd party miners with this capability. The latest software for the Nvidia miner can be found here. The latest software for the AMD miner can be found here. The AMD miner is a third party miner. Information and advice about using the AMD miner can be found on our Slack channel. This guide will walk you through the Nvidia miner. Step 1 - Close your wallet. Navigate to %appdata%\Nexus (~/Library/Application Support/Nexus on macOS) and open the nexus.conf file. Depending on your wallet, you may or may not have this file. If not, please create a new txt file and save it as nexus.conf You will need to add the following lines before restarting your wallet:
Step 2 - Extract the files into a new folder. Step 3 - Run the nexus.bat file. This will run the miner and deposit any rewards for mining a block into the account on your wallet. For more information on either Prime Mining or Hashing, please join our Slack and visit the #mining channel. Additional information can be found here.
3. How do I stake Nexus? Once you have your wallet installed, fully synchronized and encrypted, you can begin staking by:
Choosing Unlock Wallet from the Settings menu
Check the box that says "Unlock for Mint Only", then enter your password.
When the question mark at the lower right of the wallet window changes to a clock icon, you are now staking.
After you begin staking, you will receive a Genesis transaction as your first staking reward. This establishes a Trust key in your wallet and stakes your wallet balance on that key. From that point, you will periodically receive additional Trust transactions as further staking rewards for as long as your Trust key remains active. IMPORTANT - After you receive a Genesis transaction, backup your wallet.dat file immediately. You can select the Backup Wallet option from the File menu, or manually copy the file directly. If you do not do this, then your Nexus balance will be staked on the Trust key that you do not have backed up, and you risk loss if you were to suffer a hard drive failure or other similar problem. In the future, signature chains will make this precaution unnecessary.
4. I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are interest rate, trust weight, block weight, and stake weight? These items affect the size and frequency of staking rewards after you receive your initial Genesis transaction. When staking is active, the wallet displays a clock icon in the bottom right corner. If you hover your mouse pointer over the icon, a tooltip-style display will open up, showing their current values. Please remember to backup your wallet.dat file (see question 3 above) after you receive a Genesis transaction. Interest Rate - The minting rate at which you will receive staking rewards, displayed as an annual percentage of your NXS balance. It starts at 0.5%, increasing to 3% after 12 months. The rate increase is not linear but slows over time. It takes several weeks to reach 1% and around 3 months to reach 2%. With this rate, you can calculate the average amount of NXS you can expect to receive each day for staking. Trust Weight - An indication of how much the network trusts your node. It starts at 5% and increases much more quickly than the minting (interest) rate, reaching 100% after one month. Your level of trust increases your stake weight (below), thus increasing your chances of receiving staking transactions. It becomes easier to maintain trust as this value increases. Block Weight - Upon receipt of a Genesis transaction, this value will begin increasing slowly, reaching 100% after 24 hours. Every time you receive a staking transaction, the block weight resets. If your block weight reaches 100%, then your Trust key expires and everything resets (0.5% interest rate, 5% trust weight, waiting for a new Genesis transaction). This 24-hour requirement will be replaced by a gradual decay in the Tritium release. As long as you receive a transaction before it decays completely, you will hold onto your key. This change addresses the potential of losing your trust key after months of staking simply because of one unlucky day receiving trust transactions. Stake Weight - The higher your stake weight, the greater your chance of receiving a transaction. The exact value is a derived by a formula using your trust weight and block weight, which roughly equals the average of the two. Thus, each time you receive a transaction, your stake weight will reset to approximately half of your current level of trust.
Disk Digger Pro Apk || DiskDigger Importance || Recover Lost Files
In the Present scenario, Technology is growing too fast and we all are experiencing that our smartphone, PC, and Laptops carrying various files with the help of SD cards and internal memory. We will think that our files are in very secure places but if any file deleted unexpectedly then what you will do?. Don't worry, I already told you that tech is growing as fast as it can. Here I'm going to discuss the bestdata recovery services aka (DiskDigger) which are a perfect example of it. Let's go down to get more details of DiskDigger(Deep file recovery from any drive). DiskDigger is a tool which can recover deleted files like photos, documents, music, video and much more. DiskDigger Features: DiskDigger can recover lost files from most types of media that your computer can read: hard disks, USB flash drives, memory cards, CDs, DVDs, and floppy disks. (Note: Make sure that you have to connect your device with a USB port to recover lost data from Android and IOS devices ). And one more important thing is you have to download the diskdigger app on your android phone to recover lost files. Suppose if your Android device uses a microSD card for saving the data, please remove the card and connect it directly to your PC using a card reader, so that you can scan it directly using DiskDigger for Windows.) DiskDigger has two processes which you have to choose every time while scanning a disk. These methods are named as “dig deep” and “dig deeper“. Dig Deep:
Undelete files from FAT (FAT12, FAT16, FAT32), NTFS, and exFAT partitions.
Recover any type of file.
Filter recoverable files by name and size.
Sort recoverable files by name, size, date, and directory.
Scan (carve) entire disk for traces of specific file types.
View recoverable files as a list, or as thumbnail previews.
Thumbnails will show previews of image files, album art from MP3 and WMA files, and icons from executable files!
Selecting a recoverable file brings up a full preview of the file (insofar as possible). For image files, it will show the image (with pan and zoom). For document files, it will show a text-only preview of the document. For certain audio files, it will allow you to play back the sound.
Previews of JPG and TIFF files will show EXIF information (camera model, date taken, sensor settings, etc.).
Previews of MP3 files will show ID3 information (artist, album, genre, etc.).
Previews of ZIP files will show a list of files contained in the archive.
Able to scan virtual disk image files:
E01 and EWF files (Expert Witness Format)
VMDK files (VMware disk image)
VHD files (Microsoft Virtual Hard Disk)
VDI files (VirtualBox disk image)
Direct binary disk images (acquired with dd or similar tools)
When digging deeper, ability to start scanning from a specific location on the disk.
When previewing files, the program optionally shows the first 4K bytes of the file as a hex dump.
Hello! My name is Inna Halahuz, I am a sales manager at Platinum, the largest listing service provider for the STO and ICO projects. We know all about the best and most useful STO and ICO marketing services. By the way, we developed the best blockchain platform: [Platinum.fund] (https://platinum.fund/sto/) We also created the UBAI, the unique educational project with the best and most useful online courses. We not only share our knowledge but also help the best graduates to find a job! After finishing our courses you will know all about crypto securities, ICO and STO advertizing and best blockchain platforms. What a Blockchain Wallet is? What is its purpose? Find the answer after reading this article. Public/Private Key The public key is the digital code you give to someone that wants to transfer ownership of a unit of cryptocurrency to you; and a private key is what you need to be able to unlock your own wallet to transfer a unit of a cryptocurrency to someone else. The encoding of information within a wallet is done by the private and public keys. That is the main component of the encryption that maintains the security of the wallet. Both keys function in simultaneous encryption systems called symmetric and asymmetric encryption. The former, alternatively known as private key encryption, makes use of the same key for encryption and decryption. The latter, asymmetric encryption, utilizes two keys, the public and private key, wherein a message-sender encrypts the message with the public key, and the recipient decodes it with their private key. The public key uses asymmetric algorithms that convert messages into an unreadable format. A person who possesses a public key can encrypt the message for a specific receiver. Accessing wallets Methods of wallet access vary depending on the type of wallet being used. Various types of currency wallets on an exchange will normally be accessed via the exchange’s entrance portal, normally involving a combination of a username/password and optionally, 2FA (Two factor authentication, which we explain in more detail later). Whereas hardware wallets need to be connected to an internet enabled device, and then have a pin code entered manually by the user in possession of the hardware wallet in order for access to be gained. Phone wallets are accessed through the device on which the wallet application has been downloaded. Ordinarily, a passcode and/or security pattern must be entered before entry is granted, in addition to 2FA for withdrawals. Satoshi Nakamoto built the Satoshi client which evolved into Bitcoin in 2009. This software allowed users to create wallets and send money to other addresses. However, it proved to be a nightmarish user experience, with many transactions being sent to incorrect addresses and private keys being lost. The MtGox (Magic the Gathering Online exchange, named after the original intended use of the exchange) incident, which will be covered in greater detail later, serves as a reminder of the dangers present in the cryptosphere regarding security, and the need to constantly upgrade your defenses against all potential hacks. The resulting loss of 850k BTC is a still unresolved problem, weighing heavily on the victims and the markets at large. This caused a huge push for a constantly evolving and improving focus on security. Exchanges that developed later, and are thus considered more legitimate and secure, such as Gemini and Coinbase, put a much greater emphasis on vigilance as a direct result of the MtGox hacking incident. We also saw the evolution of wallet security into the physical realm with the creation of hardware wallets, most notable among them the Ledger and Trezor wallets. Types of Wallets & Storage Methods The simplest way to sift through the dozens of cryptocurrency storage methods available today, is to divide them up into digital and non-digital, software and hardware wallets. There are also less commonly used methods of storage of private keys, like paper wallets and brain wallets. We will examine them all at least briefly, because in the course of your interaction with cryptocurrencies and Blockchain technology, it is essential to master all the different types of hardware and software wallets. Another distinction must be made between hot wallets and cold wallets. A hot wallet is one that is connected to the internet, and a cold wallet is one that is not. Fun fact: The level below cold storage, deep cold storage has just recently been implemented by the Regal RA DMCC, a subsidiary of an internationally renowned gold trading company licensed in the Middle East. After having been granted a crypto trading license, Regal RA launched their “deep cold” storage solution for traders and investors, which offers the ability to store crypto assets in vaults deep below the Almas Tower in Dubai. This storage method is so secure that at no point is the vault connected to a network or the internet; meaning the owners of the assets can be sure that the private keys are known only to the rightful owners. Lets take a quick look at specific features and functionality of varieties of crypto wallets. Software wallets: wallet applications installed on a laptop, desktop, phone or tablet. Web Wallets: A hot wallet by definition. Web Wallets are accessible through the web browser on your phone or computer. The most important feature to recognize about any kind of web wallet, is that the private keys are held and managed by a trusted third party. MyEtherWallet is the most commonly used non-exchange web wallet, but it can only be used to store Ethereum and ERC-20 tokens. Though the avenue of access to MEW is through the web, it is not strictly speaking a web wallet, though this label will suffice for the time being. The MEW site gives you the ability to create a new wallet so you can store your ETH yourself. All the data is created and stored on your CPU rather than their servers. This makes MEW a hybrid kind of web wallet and desktop wallet. Exchange Wallets: A form of Web Wallet contained within an exchange. An exchange will hold a wallet for each individual variety of cryptocurrency you hold on that exchange. Desktop Wallets: A software program downloaded onto your computer or tablet hard drive that usually holds only one kind of cryptocurrency. The Nano Wallet (Formerly Raiwallet) and Neon wallet for storage of NEO and NEP-5 tokens are notable examples of desktop wallets Phone Wallets: These are apps downloaded onto a mobile phone that function in the same manner as a desktop wallet, but actually can hold many different kinds of cryptocurrency. The Eidoo Wallet for storing Ethereum and its associated tokens and Blockchain Wallet which currently is configured to hold BTC, ETH and Bitcoin Cash, are some of the most widely used examples. Hardware wallets — LedgeTrezoAlternatives Hardware wallets are basically physical pathways and keys to the unique location of your crypto assets on the Blockchain. These are thought to be more secure than any variety of web wallet because the private key is stored within your own hard wallet, an actual physical device. This forcibly removes the risk your online wallet, or your exchange counter party, might be hacked in the same manner as MtGox. In hardware wallet transactions, the wallet’s API creates the transaction when a user requests a payment. An API is a set of functions that facilitates the creation of applications that interact and access features or data of an operating system. The hardware then signs the transaction, and produces a public key, which is given to the network. This means the signing keys never leave the hardware wallet. The user must both enter a personal identification number and physically press buttons on the hardware wallet in order to gain access to their Blockchain wallet address through this method, and do the same to initiate transfers. Paper Wallets Possibly the safest form of cryptocurrency storage in terms of avoiding hacking, Paper Wallets are an offline form of crypto storage that is free to set up, and probably the most secure way for users, from beginners to experts, to hold on to their crypto assets. To say it simply, paper wallets are an offline cold storage method of storing cryptocurrency. This includes actually printing out your public and private keys on a piece of paper, which you then store and save in a secure place. The keys are printed in the form of QR codes which you can scan in the future for all your transactions. The reason why it is so safe is that it gives complete control to you, the user. You do not need to worry about the security or condition of a piece of hardware, nor do you have to worry about hackers on the net, or any other piece of malware. You just need to take care of one piece of paper! Real World Historical Examples of Different Wallet Types Web Wallet: Blockchain.info Brief mechanism & Security Blockchain.info is both a cryptocurrency wallet, supporting Bitcoin, Ethereum and Bitcoin cash, and also a block explorer service. The wallet service provided by blockchain.info has both a Web Wallet, and mobile phone application wallet, both of which involve signing up with an email address, and both have downloadable private keys. Two Factor Authentication is enabled for transfers from the web and mobile wallets, as well as email confirmation (as with most withdrawals from exchanges). Phone Wallet: Eidoo The Eidoo wallet is a multi-currency mobile phone app wallet for storage of Ethereum and ERC-20 tokens. The security level is the standard phone wallet level of email registration, confirmation, password login, and 2 factor authentication used in all transfers out. You may find small volumes of different varieties of cryptocurrencies randomly turning up in your Eidoo wallet address. Certain projects have deals with individual wallets to allow for “airdrops” to take place of a particular token into the wallet, without the consent of the wallet holder. There is no need to be alarmed, and the security of the wallet is not in any way compromised by these airdrops. Neon Wallet The NEON wallet sets the standard for web wallets in terms of security and user-friendly functionality. This wallet is only designed for storing NEO, Gas, and NEP-5 tokens (Ontology, Deep Brain Chain, RPX etc.). As with all single-currency wallets, be forewarned, if you send the wrong cryptocurrency type to a wallet for which it is not designed, you will probably lose your tokens or coins. MyEtherWallet My Ether Wallet, often referred to as MEW, is the most widely used and highly regarded wallet for Ethereum and its related ERC-20 tokens. You can access your MEW account with a hardware wallet, or a different program. Or you can also get access by typing or copying in your private key. However, you should understand this method is the least safe way possible,and therefore is the most likely to result in a hack. Hardware: TrezoLedger Brief History Mechanism and Security A hardware wallet is a physical key to your on-chain wallet location, with the private keys contained within a secure sector of the device. Your private key never leaves your hardware wallet. This is one of the safest possible methods of access to your crypto assets. Many people feel like the hardware wallet strikes the right balance between security, peace of mind, and convenience. Paper Wallet Paper wallets can be generated at various websites, such as https://bitcoinpaperwallet.com/ and https://walletgenerator.net/. They enable wallet holders to store their private keys totally offline, in as secure a manner as is possible. Real World Example — Poor Practices MtGox Hack history effects and security considerations MtGox was the largest cryptocurrency exchange in the world before it was hacked in 2014. They were handling over 70% of BTC transactions before they were forced to liquidate their business. The biggest theft of cryptocurrency in history began when the private keys for the hot wallets were stolen in 2011 from a wallet.dat file, possibly by hacking, possibly by a rogue employee. Over the course of the next 3 years the hot wallets were emptied of approximately 650000 BTC. The hacker only needed wallet.dat file to access and make transfers from the hot wallet, as wallet encryption was only in operation from the time of the Bitcoin 0.4.0 release on Sept 23rd 2011. Even as the wallets were being emptied, the employees at Mt Gox were apparently oblivious to what was taking place. It seems that Mt Gox workers were interpreting these withdrawals as large transfers being made to more secure wallets. The former CEO of the exchange, Mark Karpeles, is currently on trial for embezzlement and faces up to 5 years in prison if found guilty. The Mt Gox hack precipitated the acceleration of security improvements on other exchanges, for wallets, and the architecture of bitcoin itself. As a rule of thumb, no small-to-medium scale crypto holders should use exchange wallets as a long-term storage solution. Investors and experienced traders may do this to take advantage of market fluctuations, but exchange wallets are perhaps the most prone to hacking, and storing assets on exchanges for an extended time is one of the riskiest ways to hold your assets. In a case strikingly similar to the MtGox of 2011–2014, the operators of the BitGrail exchange “discovered” that approximately 17 million XRB ($195 million worth in early 2018) were missing. The operators of the exchange were inexplicably still accepting deposits, long after they knew about the hack. Then they proceeded to block withdrawals from non-EU users. And then they even requested a hard fork of the code to restore the funds. This would have meant the entire XRB Blockchain would have had to accept all transactions from their first “invalid” transaction that were invalid, and rollback the ledger. The BitGrailexchange attempted to open operations in May 2018 but was immediately forced to close by order of the Italian courts. BitGrail did not institute mandatory KYC (Know your customer) procedures for their clients until after the theft had been reported, and allegedly months after the hack was visible. They also did not have 2 factor authentication mandatory for withdrawals. All big, and very costly mistakes. Case Study: Good Practice Binance, the Attempted Hack During the 2017 bull run, China-based exchange Binance quickly rose to the status of biggest altcoin exchange in the world, boasting daily volumes that surged to over $4 billion per day in late December. Unfortunately, this success attracted the attention of some crafty hackers. These hackers purchased domain names that were confusingly similar to “binance.com”. And then they created sufficiently convincing replica websites so they could phish traders for their login information. After obtaining this vital info, the scammers created API keys to place large buy orders for VIAcoin, an obscure, low volume digital currency. Those large buy orders spiked VIA’s price. Within minutes they traded the artificially high-priced VIA for BTC. Then they immediately made withdrawal requests from the hacked BTC wallets to wallets outside of the exchange. Almost a perfect fait accompli! But, Binance’s “automating risk management system” kicked in, as it should, and all withdrawals were temporarily suspended, resulting in a foiled hacking attempt. Software Wallets Web/Desktop/Phone/Exchange Advantages and Limitations As we said before, it is inadvisable to store crypto assets in exchange wallets, and, to a lesser extent, Web Wallets. The specific reason we say that is because you need to deliver your private keys into the hands of another party, and rely on that website or exchange to keep your private key, and thus your assets, safe. The advantages of the less-secure exchange or web wallets, are the speed at which you can transfer assets into another currency, or into another exchange for sale or for arbitrage purposes. Despite the convenience factor, all software wallets will at some point have been connected to the internet or a network. So, you can never be 100% sure that your system has not been infected with malware, or some kind of keylogging software, that will allow a third party to record your passwords or private keys. How well the type of storage method limits your contact with such hazards is a good way to rate the security of said variety of wallet. Of all the software wallets, desktop and mobile wallets are the most secure because you download and store your own private key, preferably on a different system. By taking the responsibility of private key storage you can be sure that only one person has possession of it, and that is you! Thereby greatly increasing the security of your crypto assets. By having their assets in a desktop wallet, traders can guard their private key and enjoy the associated heightened security levels, as well keep their assets just one swift transfer away from an exchange. Hardware Wallets Advantages and Limitations We briefly touched on the features and operation of the two most popular hardware wallets currently on the market, the Ledger and Trezor wallets. Now it will be helpful to take a closer look into the pros and cons of the hardware wallet storage method. With hardware wallets, the private keys are stored within a protected area of the microcontroller, and they are prevented from being exported out of the device in plain text. They are fortified with state-of-the-art cryptography that makes them immune to computer viruses and malware. And much of the time, the software is open source, which allows user validation of the entire performance of the device. The advantages of a hardware wallet over the perhaps more secure paper wallet method of crypto storage is the interactive user experience, and also the fact that the private key must at some stage be downloaded in order to use the paper wallet. The main disadvantage of a hardware wallet is the time-consuming extra steps needed to transfer funds out of this mode of storage to an exchange, which could conceivably result in some traders missing out on profits. But with security being the main concern of the vast majority of holders, investors and traders too, this slight drawback is largely inconsequential in most situations. Paper Wallets Advantages and Limitations Paper wallets are thought by some to be the safest way to store your crypto assets, or more specifically, the best method of guarding the pathways to your assets on the Blockchain. By printing out your private key information, the route to your assets on the Blockchain is stored 100% offline (apart from the act of printing the private key out, the entire process is totally offline). This means that you will not run the risk of being infected with malware or become the victim of keylogging scams. The main drawback of using paper wallets is that you are in effect putting all your eggs in one basket, and if the physical document is destroyed, you will lose access to your crypto assets forever. Key things to keep in mind about your Wallet Security: Recovery Phrases/Private Key Storage/2FA/Email Security Recovery phrases are used to recover the on-chain location for your wallet with your assets for hardware wallets like ledgers and Trezors that have been lost. When you purchase a new ledger for example, you just have to set it up again by entering the recovery phrase into the display and the lost wallets will appear with your assets intact. Private key storage is of paramount importance to maintain the safety of your on-chain assets! This should be done in paper wallet form, or stored offline on a different computer, or USB device, from the one you would typically use to connect to the 2 Factor Authentication (2FA) sometimes known as “two step authentication”. This feature offers an extra security layer when withdrawing funds from cryptocurrency wallets. A specialized app, most commonly Google Authenticator, is synced up to the exchange to provide a constantly changing code. This code must be entered within a short time window to initiate transfers, or to log into an exchange, if it has also been enabled for that purpose. You must always consider the level of fees, or the amount of Gas, that will be needed to carry out the transaction. In times of high network activity Gas prices can be quite high. In fact, in December 2017 network fees became so high that some Bitcoin transactions became absolutely unfeasible. But that was basically due to the anomalous network congestion caused by frantic trading of Bitcoin as it was skyrocketing in value. When copying wallet addresses, double check and triple check that they are correct. If you make a mistake and enter an incorrect address, it is most likely your funds will be irretrievably lost; you will never see those particular assets again. Also check that you haven’t input the address of another one of your wallets that is designed to hold a different variety of cryptocurrency. You would similarly run the very great risk of losing your funds forever. Or, at the very least, if you have sent the wrong crypto to a large exchange wallet, for example on Coinbase, maybe you could eventually get those funds back, but it would still entail a long and unenjoyable wait. How to Monitor Funds There are two ways to monitor you funds and your wallets. The first is by searching for individual wallet addresses on websites specifically designed to let you view all the transactions on a particular Blockchain. The other is to store a copy of your wallet contents on an application that tracks the prices of all cryptocurrencies. Blockchain.info is the block explorer for Bitcoin, and it allows you to track all wallet movements so you can view your holdings and all the historical transactions within the wallet. The Ethereum blockchain’s block explorer is called Ether scanner, and it functions in the same way. There is a rival to Ether scanner produced by the Jibrel Network, called JSearch which will be released soon. JSearch will aim to offer a more streamlined and faster search method for Ethereum blockchain transactions. There are many different kinds of block explorer for each individual crypto currency, including nanoexplorer.io for Nano (formerly Rai Blocks) and Neotracker for NEO. If you simply want to view the value of your portfolio, the Delta and Blockfolio apps allow you to easily do that. But they are not actually linked to your specific wallet address, they just show price movements and total value of the coins you want to monitor. That’s not all! You can learn how to transfer and monitor the funds in and out of your wallet by clicking on the link. To be continued! UBAI.co Contact me via Facebook, Instagram and LinkedIn to learn more about the best online education: LinkedInFacebookInstagram
This is my handout for paranoid people who want a way to store bitcoin safely. It requires a little work, but this is the method I use because it should be resistant to risks associated with:
Bad random number generators
Malicious or flawed software
If you want a method that is less secure but easier, skip to the bottom of this post. The Secure Method
Download bitaddress.org. (Try going to the website and pressing "ctrl+s")
Put the bitaddress.org file on a computer with an operating system that has not interacted with the internet much or at all. The computer should not be hooked up to the internet when you do this. You could put the bitaddress file on a USB stick, and then turn off your computer, unplug the internet, and boot it up using a boot-from-CD copy of linux (Ubuntu or Mint for example). This prevents any mal-ware you may have accumulated from running and capturing your keystrokes. I use an old android smart phone that I have done a factory reset on. It has no sim-card and does not have the password to my home wifi. Also the phone wifi is turned off. If you are using a fresh operating system, and do not have a connection to the internet, then your private key will probably not escape the computer.
Roll a die 62 times and write down the sequence of numbers. This gives you 2160 possible outcomes, which is the maximum that Bitcoin supports.
Run bitaddress.org from your offline computer. Input the sequence of numbers from the die rolls into the "Brain Wallet" tab. By providing your own source of randomness, you do not have to worry that the random number generator used by your computer is too weak. I'm looking at you, NSA ಠ_ಠ
Brain Wallet tab creates a private key and address.
Write down the address and private key by hand or print them on a dumb printer. (Dumb printer means not the one at your office with the hard drive. Maybe not the 4 in 1 printer that scans and faxes and makes waffles.) If you hand copy them you may want to hand copy more than one format. (WIF and HEX). If you are crazy and are storing your life savings in Bitcoin, and you hand copy the private key, do a double-check by typing the private key back into the tool on the "Wallet Details" tab and confirm that it recreates the same public address.
Load your paper wallet by sending your bitcoin to the public address. You can do this as many times as you like.
You can view the current balance of your paper wallet by typing the public address into the search box at blockchain.info
If you are using an old cell phone or tablet do a factory reset when you are finished so that the memory of the private keys is destroyed. If you are using a computer with a boot-from-CD copy of linux, I think you can just power down the computer and the private keys will be gone. (Maybe someone can confirm for me that the private keys would not be able to be cached by bitaddress?)
To spend your paper wallet, you will need to either create an offline transaction, or import the private key into a hot wallet. Creating an offline transaction is dangerous if you don't know what you are doing. Importing to a client side wallet like Bitcoin-Qt, Electrum, MultiBit or Armory is a good idea. You can also import to an online wallet such as Blockchain.info or Coinbase.
Trusting bitaddress.org The only thing you need bitaddress.org to do is to honestly convert the brainwallet passphrase into the corresponding private key and address. You can verify that it is doing this honestly by running several test passphrases through the copy of bitaddress that you plan on using, and several other brainwallet generators. For example, you could use the online version of bitaddress, and brainwallet and safepaperwallet and bitcoinpaperwallet. If you are fancy with the linux command line, you can also try "echo -n my_die_rolls | sha256sum". The linux operating system should reply with the same private key that bitaddress makes. This protects you from a malicious paper wallet generator. Trusting your copy of bitaddress.org Bitaddress publishes the sha1 hash of the bitaddress.org website at this location: https://www.bitaddress.org/pgpsignedmsg.txt The message is signed by the creator, pointbiz. I found his PGP fingerprint here: https://github.com/pointbiz/bitaddress.org/issues/18 "527B 5C82 B1F6 B2DB 72A0 ECBF 8749 7B91 6397 4F5A" With this fingerprint, you can authenticate the signed message, which gives you the hash of the current bitaddress.org file. Then you can hash your copy of the file and authenticate the file. I do not have a way to authenticate the fingerprint itself, sorry. According to the website I linked to, git has cryptographic traceability that would enable a person to do some research and authenticate the fingerprint. If you want to go that far, knock yourself out. I think that the techniques described in this document do not really rely on bitaddress being un-corrupt. Anyway, how do we know pointbiz is a good guy? ;-) There are a lot of skilled eyes watching bitaddress.org and the signed sha1 hash. To gain the most benefit from all of those eyes, it's probably worthwhile to check your copy by hashing it and comparing to the published hash. "But we aren't supposed to use brainwallets" You are not supposed to use brainwallets that have predictable passphrases. People think they are pretty clever about how they pick their passphrases, but a lot of bitcoins have been stolen because people tend to come up with similar ideas. If you let dice generate the passphrase, then it is totally random, and you just need to make sure to roll enough times. How to avoid spending your life rolling dice When I first started doing this, I rolled a die 62 times for each private key. This is not necessary. You can simply roll the die 62 times and keep the sequence of 62 numbers as a "seed". The first paper address you create would use "my die rolls-1" as the passphrase, the second would be "my die rolls-2" and so on. This is safe because SHA256 prevents any computable relationship between the resulting private key family. Of course this has a certain bad security scenario -- if anyone obtains the seed they can reconstruct all of your paper wallets. So this is not for everyone! On the other hand, it also means that if you happen to lose one of your paper wallets, you could reconstruct it so long as you still had the seed. One way to reduce this risk is to add an easy to remember password like this: "my die rolls-password-1". If you prefer, you can use a technique called diceware to convert your die rolls to words that still contain the same quantity of entropy, but which could be easier to work with. I don't use diceware because it's another piece of software that I have to trust, and I'm just copy/pasting my high entropy seed, so I don't care about how ugly it is. Why not input the dice as a Base 6 private key on the Wallet Details tab? Two reasons. First of all, this option requires that you roll the die 99 times, but you do not get meaningful additional protection by rolling more than 62 times. Why roll more times if you don't have to? Second, I use the "high entropy seed" method to generate multiple private keys from the same die rolls. Using the Base 6 option would require rolling 99 times for every private key. I'm a big nerd with exotic dice. How many times to roll? Put this formula in Excel to get the number of times to roll: "=160*LOG(2,f)" where f = number of faces on the die. For example, you would roll a d16 40 times. By the way, somewhat unbelievably casino dice are more fair than ordinary dice The "Change address" problem: You should understand change addresses because some people have accidentally lost money by not understanding it. Imagine your paper wallet is a 10 dollar bill. You use it to buy a candy bar. To do this you give the cashier the entire 10 dollar bill. They keep 1 dollar and give you 9 dollars back as change. With Bitcoin, you have to explicitly say that you want 9 dollars back, and you have to provide an address where it should go to. If you just hand over the 10 dollar bill, and don't say you want 9 dollars back, then the miner who processes the transaction gives 1 dollar to the store and keeps the remainder themselves. Wallet software like Bitcoin-Qt handles this automatically for you. They automatically make "change addresses" and they automatically construct transactions that make the change go to the change address. There are three ways I know of that the change problem can bite you:
You generate a raw transaction by hand, and screw up. If you are generating a transaction "by hand" with a raw transaction editor, you need to be extra careful that your outputs add up to the same number as your inputs. Otherwise, the very lucky miner who puts your transaction in a block will keep the difference.
You import a paper wallet into a wallet software and spend part of it, and then think that the change is in the paper wallet. The change is not in the paper wallet. It is in a change address that the wallet software generated. That means that if you lose your wallet.dat file you will lose all the change. The paper wallet is empty.
You import a paper wallet into a wallet software and spend part of it, and then think that the change is in the change address that the wallet software generated. If the transaction did not need to consume all of the "outputs" used to fund the paper wallet, then there could be some unspent outputs still located at the address of the paper wallet. If you destroyed the paper wallet, and destroyed the copy of the private key imported to the wallet software, then you could not access this money. (E.g. if you restored the software wallet from its seed, thinking all of the money was moved to the wallet-generated change addresses.)
For more on this, see here The hot paper wallet problem Your bitcoin in your paper wallet are secure, so long as the piece of paper is secure, until you go to spend it. When you spend it, you put the private key onto a computer that is connected to the internet. At this point you must regard your paper wallet address as hot because the computer you used may have been compromised. It now provides much less protection against theft of your coins. If you need the level of protection that a cold paper wallet provides, you need to create a new one and send your coins to it. Destroying your paper wallet address Do not destroy the only copy of a private key without verifying that there is no money at that address. Your client may have sent change to your paper wallet address without you realizing it. Your client may have not consumed all of the unspent outputs available at the paper wallet address. You can go to blockchain.info and type the public address into the search window to see the current balance. I don't bother destroying my used/empty paper wallet addresses. I just file them away. Encrypting your private key BIP 0038 describes a standardized way to encrypt your paper wallet private key. A normal paper wallet is vulnerable because if anyone sees the private key they can take the coins. The BIP38 protocol is even resistant to brute force attacks because it uses a memory intensive encryption algorithm called scrypt. If you want to encrypt your wallets using BIP38, I recommend that you use bitcoinpaperwallet because they will let you type in your own private key and will encrypt it for you. As with bitaddress, for high security you should only use a local copy of this website on a computer that will never get connected to the internet. Splitting your private key Another option for protecting the private key is to convert it into multiple fragments that must be brought together. This method allows you to store pieces of your key with separate people in separate locations. It can be set up so that you can reconstitute the private key when you have any 2 out of the 3 fragments. This technique is called Shamir's Secret Sharing. I have not tried this technique, but you may find it valuable. You could try using this website http://passguardian.com/ which will help you split up a key. As before, you should do this on an offline computer. Keep in mind if you use this service that you are trusting it to work properly. It would be good to find other independently created tools that could be used to validate the operation of passguardian. Personally, I would be nervous destroying the only copy of a private key and relying entirely on the fragments generated by the website. Looks like Bitaddress has an implementation of Shamir's Secret Sharing now under the "Split Wallet" tab. However it would appear that you cannot provide your own key for this, so you would have to trust bitaddress. Durable Media Pay attention to the media you use to record your paper wallet. Some kinds of ink fade, some kinds of paper disintegrate. Moisture and heat are your enemies. In addition to keeping copies of my paper wallet addresses I did the following:
Order a set of numeric metal stamps. ($10)
Buy a square galvanized steel outlet cover from the hardware store ($1)
Buy a sledgehammer from the hardware store
Write the die rolls on the steel plate using a sharpie
Use the hammer to stamp the metal. Do all the 1's, then all the 2's etc. Please use eye protection, as metal stamp may emit sparks or fly unexpectedly across the garage. :-)
Use nail polish remover to erase the sharpie
Electrum If you trust electrum you might try running it on an offline computer, and having it generate a series of private keys from a seed. I don't have experience with this software, but it sounds like there are some slick possibilities there that could save you time if you are working with a lot of addresses. Message to the downvoters I would appreciate it if you would comment, so that I can learn from your opinion. Thanks! The Easy Method This method is probably suitable for small quantities of bitcoin. I would not trust it for life-altering sums of money.
Download the bitaddress.org website to your hard drive.
Close your browser
Disconnect from the internet
Open the bitaddress.org website from your hard drive.
Hi guys, I'm having a problem running my Bitcoin Core full node. If anyone can help me that would be amazing. I'll try my best to give all the details.
I recently set up my computer to dual boot Ubuntu 16.04 and Windows 10.
I installed bitcoind on Ubuntu. My computer has an SSD and an HDD. Both operating systems are installed on different partitions of the SSD and the HDD is accessible to both. Due to space limitations on the SSD, I changed the data directory to a location on the HDD.
I run bitcoind and it works perfectly! but...
I'll occasionally reboot my computer to switch operating systems. Anytime I go Ubuntu Windows Ubuntu and then try to run the node it fails and I get an error telling me I need to -reindex ro -reindex-chainstate to recover. Before rebooting I make sure to shut down bitcoind properly. Everything terminal spits out using bitcoind -printtoconsole is below.
I'm not sure whether this happens if I simply reboot Ubuntu Ubuntu. Reindexing takes a whole day so I can't check at the moment.
Can anyone help me fix / avoid this so I can run the node whenever I'm booted in Ubuntu? After I reindex, everything works perfectly again... until I need to reboot my computer.
2017-11-05 11:50:54 Bitcoin version v0.15.0.1 2017-11-05 11:50:54 InitParameterInteraction: parameter interaction: -whitelistforcerelay=1 -> setting -whitelistrelay=1 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Assuming ancestors of block 0000000000000000003b9ce759c2a087d52abc4266f8f4ebd6d768b89defa50a have valid signatures. 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Using the 'standard' SHA256 implementation 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Using RdRand as an additional entropy source 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Default data directory /home/darius/.bitcoin 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Using data directory 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Using config file bitcoin.conf 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Using at most 125 automatic connections (1024 file descriptors available) 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Using 16 MiB out of 32/2 requested for signature cache, able to store 524288 elements 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Using 16 MiB out of 32/2 requested for script execution cache, able to store 524288 elements 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Using 4 threads for script verification 2017-11-05 11:50:54 scheduler thread start 2017-11-05 11:50:54 libevent: getaddrinfo: address family for nodename not supported 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Binding RPC on address ::1 port 8332 failed. 2017-11-05 11:50:54 HTTP: creating work queue of depth 16 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Config options rpcuser and rpcpassword will soon be deprecated. Locally-run instances may remove rpcuser to use cookie-based auth, or may be replaced with rpcauth. Please see share/rpcuser for rpcauth auth generation. 2017-11-05 11:50:54 HTTP: starting 4 worker threads 2017-11-05 11:50:54 init message: Verifying wallet(s)... 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Using BerkeleyDB version Berkeley DB 4.8.30: (April 9, 2010) 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Using wallet wallet.dat 2017-11-05 11:50:54 CDBEnv::Open: LogDir=database ErrorFile=db.log 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Cache configuration: 2017-11-05 11:50:54 * Using 56.2MiB for block index database 2017-11-05 11:50:54 * Using 8.0MiB for chain state database 2017-11-05 11:50:54 * Using 385.8MiB for in-memory UTXO set (plus up to 286.1MiB of unused mempool space) 2017-11-05 11:50:54 init message: Loading block index... 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Opening LevelDB in blocks/index 2017-11-05 11:50:54 IO error: blocks/index/LOCK: Permission denied 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Database I/O error 2017-11-05 11:50:54 : Error opening block database. Please restart with -reindex or -reindex-chainstate to recover. : Error opening block database. Please restart with -reindex or -reindex-chainstate to recover. 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Aborted block database rebuild. Exiting. 2017-11-05 11:50:54 scheduler thread interrupt 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Shutdown: In progress... 2017-11-05 11:50:54 Shutdown: done
I may have 0.2 BTC or more somewhere on my PC. Whoever helps me access it gets half.
Sometime in 2011, I believe, I ordered some stuff online using BitCoins. I distinctly remember having some left-over BTC but it wasn't worth much at the time so I quickly forgot about it. I think I remember that it was around 0.2 BTC, but I can't say for sure. May be more, may be less. In recent times I've come to realize that even if it's "just" 0.2, it's worth quite a bit today. And so I've been trying to locate my wallet.dat which seems to be long gone, unfortunately. (I've searched for it using Everything). Since I'm unable to locate anything of value myself, I decided to seek assistance. Some relevant info:
I acquired the BTC in 2011.
I remember installing some type of wallet, but can't remember the name of the software. I'm pretty sure I could access it by double clicking some icon on my desktop, and I think it had "wallet" in its name.
Since then I've reinstalled Windows once and maybe twice - but I've also gotten a second HDD plus an SSD. Windows is now on the SSD, and it's possible that the oldest HDD is untouched (i.e. not wiped).
So - bitcoin - is there anything I can do to access the BTC? Note: I am making a new account simply because family and friends know my reddit username, and I used the BTC for something they would disapprove of. Not gonna go into details, but in general terms, people in my area had no good reason to hold BTC in 2011 so I'd rather not make it known to my family. I can't prove in any way that I am honest, except to give my word. Just hoping it doesn't take much to share some methods I can try, and that some stranges will give it a shot. :) Thanks for reading! Edit: After going so far as to search for a certain string of hex keys on my old disk using a hex editor, I've given up. The search took about 48 hours and found zero results. Pretty sure the coins are gone, unfortunately. :( Thanks to everyone who tried to assist.
Bitcoin client comparison? Ease of use, functionality, security etc..
Hey everyone, I've recently started using bitcoins, and been trying to figure out the best way to store them.. There are a bunch of desktop clients available, each with it's ups and downs, supporting different features, and using different amount of resources.. I wanted to find a nice overview of them all, but so far I'm not finding anything that I wanted to know.. So I think we should have some kind of wiki page, that describes them in more details. Explains how to start using each of them, and how to ensure it's safe. For example, to try and secure my wallet files, I'm storing them in a TrueCrypt volume, that's archived to the cloud. This way they are backed up to multiple locations, incase my machine dies, and are also encrypted, in case one of the machines is compromised! I'm not sure if that's overkill or not :) I thought I'd start with a short write-up of my opinions on some of the clients and my impressions of them. It's by no means a comprehensive review (that would take a lot more space than a single reddit post). All of this is just a subjective view on each of the clients.. I hope more people will add to it, maybe even compoling a nice and informative comparison of all the popular clients!
Bitcoin-QT: The official client. Somewhat basic in functionality, advanced functions (like backing up the private key) available through the "debug" window., but works well for a lot of people.. You can backup the wallet.dat file in the TrueCrypt volume to secure the coins, but the client will store the main working copy of the wallet file in %APPDATA% in Windows - leaving it potentially compromised, unless you encrypt the wallet file (part of the client's functionality). There's no obvious way to change the storage location. The downside (upside for some?) of the client is that it stores the whole blockchain.. (almost 15GB atm) Initial synchronisation takes a lot of time.. If you don't use it for some time, you'll have to synchronise again, which takes time (and CPU resources btw).. At the end of the day, the wallet is as secure as your machine is. No support for paper wallets / watch-only wallets / offline storage, transactions.. But for basic use - it works perfectly fine.
Bitcoin Armory: A popular powerful client, runs "on top" of Bitcoin-QT, which means the blockchain is also stored on the local drive.. On top of that, the Armory client will also build a local database to manage it, which means it needs more storage on it's own.. (at the moment, that's an extra 16GB on top of the blockchain!). Also, the synchronisation status is not very helpful, just saying the % synchronised.. At least Bitcoin-QT states how many weeks/days you are behind, so you can somewhat estimate how soon the sync will work. The Armory client supports multiple wallets, compared to the official client, which can be stored separately. The wallets use (correct me if I'm wrong?) a deterministic key to generate the private keys, which means if you backup your wallet in cold storage - you can restore it at any point, and restore all the new addresses generated after the backup - a very useful feature. The Armory client has more advanced functionality like paper backups (described above), offline wallets and offline transactions, and a lot more.. Some features are missing, like importing watch-only addresses. You can though create a watch-only backup of a wallet, and import that on a different machine, but if you only have an address - not supported atm. The client seems rather powerful, but also feels a bit clunky and hard to use.. Some functionality is missing, and just strange (not all private key formats are supported.. even if most other clients have no problems with them)
MultiBit: A lite bitcoin client, that doesn't store the whole blockchain locally. This makes it a lot easier to start using, even on a new machine. It will only synchronise a part of the blockchain that is relevant for a specific address, which means you save on both time and storage when using it, but it can be (potentially, but quite unlikely) compromised, if the only nodes it can see are rogue. It also supports multiple wallets, you can select where to store the wallet files, and they can be password protected as well. You can store them on a TrueCrypt volume, to secure it even more. The app is still relatively simple to use, while providing more functionality than just the basics. Compared to Armory and Bitcoin-QT, you can also create a portable installation, which can be stored on a USB key / True Crypt volume along with the key files.
Electrum: This is one of the clients I've hardly used so far.. It has a full and a portable version! With the portable version I can store they keys where I want, and keep them secure as I see fit. As MultiBit, it doesn't store the full chain, but instead will use a server to keep and manage the blockchain. But nothing is stopping you from running your own electrum server and connecting to it, if you're worried. The client seems rather simple, but powerful at the same time. Same as Armory - it will create a seed that will be used to generate addresses. The nice thing is that it will generate multiple receiving addresses, and will also maintain change addresses, which (if I'm right) means that each transaction will not reuse the same address twice, unless you force it to. My only gripe so far with it is that it's the only client so far where you can't send to multiple addresses in one transaction, forcing only a single recipient per transaction.. I hope that'll change in the future :(
Guidance please on how to import .dat file in BTC core 0.16.0
Hi guys! Backstory: My old friend, somehow bought BTC before the mtgox hack, somewhere in 2013 probably. In fact he doesn't really remember. He gave me his MacBook, from which I've extracted the wallet.dat file, and made a couple of backups of said file. Specs: Windows 10, x64 install of BTC core, have not fully synced the blockchain as of yet. My current problem: I've tried following this really helpfull guide, but I'm getting stuck since I cant find the datadir file to replace the wallet.dat file. (please note that I've installed the program files as well as the blockchain location on my secondary drive because that has enough space for the blockchain, and am currently trying again with program data in C, blockchain data in D).
Im feeling like im missing something very obvious here?
My anticipated problem: He has a guess about the passphrase its something in the format of 'vaalkeo12' or something. After I've exhausted the most logical combinations is there still a (semi-noobfriendly way to crack the passphrase)? Assuming this goes well I'd then dumpwallet for a human readable version of the private key, said private key I could then import into for example electrum wallet, and then send the files to a new wallet, and make a paper wallet/usb stick backup of it. To summarize my questions: - How do I replace the BTC Core wallet.dat if I cant find the datadir? (bitcoin.it's guide says you can choose a datadir by rightclicking the exe under properties but I see no such option? - If I cant find the right passhprase any reccomended course of action? - Once I have the private key, which client do you recommend me to import it in? - Any other pointers or things I should anticipate? Any advice would be greatly appreciated! Sorry for spelling/grammar, throwaway for privacy reasons! Thank you for reading.
The first ever PIVX rebranded v.126.96.36.199 wallet has been released. Compiled wallet binaries for various OS should be put up in the repo link below. https://github.com/PIVX-Project/PIVX/releases/tag/v188.8.131.52 IMPORTANT WALLET UPGRADE STEPS If you have an existing wallet, you MUST rename the following 2 items 'BEFORE' you start the new wallet as the foldefile naming has changed.
Shut down the wallet gracefully either via CLI or via wallet GUI.
For linux users, hidden directory ".darknet" needs to be renamed to ".pivx".
For Windows users, similar will need to be done to your wallet.dat directory. (usually located in %APPDATA%)
For everyone, "darknet.conf" needs to be renamed to "pivx.conf".
Replace the wallet binaries with the updated v184.108.40.206 binaries.
Start the wallet!
For Windows users: I personally recommend Windows wallet users to specify the wallet.dat directory via a shortcut method. Basically create a shortcut the qt executable and append the -datadir= and specify a folder you created. e.g. C:\Coins\PIVX\pivx-qt.exe -datadir=C:\Coins\PIVX\blockchain Then the wallet and chain/dat/conf files will all be within a single folder instead of it going to %APPDATA%. This trick works for pretty much every coin under the sun btw. (bitcoin, litecoin, whatever coin etc etc) P.S. If you have an existing wallet.dat & conf files, you'll need to move them to the new -datadir folder. this post was originally made by JAKIMAN on Bitcointalk forums here : https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1262920.5560
Hi guys, I'm fairly new to Bitcoins and I'm already scared that I've lost my wallet. I used bitcoin-qt.exe to create a new one, let it sync, then transferred some funds over to it. Since then, every time I try to run it, it just crashes instantly. I'm running Windows 8.1 and neither the 32-bit nor 64-bit versions of bitcoin-qt work at all. If I debug with Visual Studio 2012: it displays the following error:
Unhandled exception at 0x00B906CA in bitcoin-qt.exe: 0xC0000005: Access violation reading location 0x00000004.
I tried using Bitcoin Armory and that won't work either. Is there any alternative Bitcoin client or some method I can use to recover my wallet and its bitcoins? I am desperate for help. Thank you so much. Edit: Apparently version 0.9.3 works fine. I'm going to see if I can recover my wallet with this version. Edit: I uninstalled absolutely everything related to Bitcoin, deleted everything except my wallet, torrented bootstrap.dat, installed Bitcoin 0.10.0, and it works now, but it won't seem to recognize my wallet backup, even running with -rescan. I'll try some more. Thanks for the help though, you guys.
Getting ready to reformat computer, and I don't want to lose my bitcoins. Can someone confirm that my method will work?
I am using Bitcoin-QT on Windows 8. My wallet is encrypted. I have opened %APPDATA%\Bitcoin\ and located wallet.dat. It is backed up to multiple USB drives. When I reformat, and reinstall Bitcoin-QT on my fresh copy of Windows, I am planning on replacing the newly generated wallet.dat with the wallet.dat that I backed up to my USB drives. Is this the correct method? Sorry if this is really simple, I just have seen tons of horror stories of people losing their coins, and I do not want to become one of those stories.
Some questions about the blockchain, wallet.dat, and Truecrypt on Windows
1) Do I need to download the entire blockchain before I can send bitcoins from the official bitcoin client, even if blockexplorer.com says my address has received them? The blockchain is taking a long time for my client to download and my balance is unchanged. (On getblockchain.com, the blockchain is currently 475MB compressed and 1.42GiB uncompressed, although the site is more targeted to linux users.) 2) After following the Bitcoin wiki regarding Truecrypt, if I launch bitcoin.exe with the -datadir option pointing to a Truecrypt container file that contains wallet.dat, does the ever-growing blockchain also have to be in that container file? Can I point the client to one location for the blockchain and another location for the wallet file? 3) Can I leave the blockchain in its normal directory and do I just need to copy wallet.dat out of the Truecrypt container file when I need it? (Or decompress it with 7-zip or decrypt it with GPG4win?) Wouldn't it then be vulnerable to trojans like Infostealer.Coinbit or the metasploit module bitcoin_jacker.rb? 4) Will the plaintext wallet issue be obsolete by version 0.4.0.0 of the official client? And will a headers-only client make it so every user doesn't have to download a neverending blockchain?
Upgrading and downgrading How to Upgrade If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Bitcoin-Qt (on Mac) or bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (on Linux). Downgrade warning Because release 0.10.0 and later makes use of headers-first synchronization and parallel block download (see further), the block files and databases are not backwards-compatible with pre-0.10 versions of Bitcoin Core or other software:
Blocks will be stored on disk out of order (in the order they are
received, really), which makes it incompatible with some tools or other programs. Reindexing using earlier versions will also not work anymore as a result of this.
The block index database will now hold headers for which no block is
stored on disk, which earlier versions won't support. If you want to be able to downgrade smoothly, make a backup of your entire data directory. Without this your node will need start syncing (or importing from bootstrap.dat) anew afterwards. It is possible that the data from a completely synchronised 0.10 node may be usable in older versions as-is, but this is not supported and may break as soon as the older version attempts to reindex. This does not affect wallet forward or backward compatibility. There are no known problems when downgrading from 0.11.x to 0.10.x. Important information Transaction flooding At the time of this release, the P2P network is being flooded with low-fee transactions. This causes a ballooning of the mempool size. If this growth of the mempool causes problematic memory use on your node, it is possible to change a few configuration options to work around this. The growth of the mempool can be monitored with the RPC command getmempoolinfo. One is to increase the minimum transaction relay fee minrelaytxfee, which defaults to 0.00001. This will cause transactions with fewer BTC/kB fee to be rejected, and thus fewer transactions entering the mempool. The other is to restrict the relaying of free transactions with limitfreerelay. This option sets the number of kB/minute at which free transactions (with enough priority) will be accepted. It defaults to 15. Reducing this number reduces the speed at which the mempool can grow due to free transactions. For example, add the following to bitcoin.conf:
More robust solutions are being worked on for a follow-up release. Notable changes Block file pruning This release supports running a fully validating node without maintaining a copy of the raw block and undo data on disk. To recap, there are four types of data related to the blockchain in the bitcoin system: the raw blocks as received over the network (blk???.dat), the undo data (rev???.dat), the block index and the UTXO set (both LevelDB databases). The databases are built from the raw data. Block pruning allows Bitcoin Core to delete the raw block and undo data once it's been validated and used to build the databases. At that point, the raw data is used only to relay blocks to other nodes, to handle reorganizations, to look up old transactions (if -txindex is enabled or via the RPC/REST interfaces), or for rescanning the wallet. The block index continues to hold the metadata about all blocks in the blockchain. The user specifies how much space to allot for block & undo files. The minimum allowed is 550MB. Note that this is in addition to whatever is required for the block index and UTXO databases. The minimum was chosen so that Bitcoin Core will be able to maintain at least 288 blocks on disk (two days worth of blocks at 10 minutes per block). In rare instances it is possible that the amount of space used will exceed the pruning target in order to keep the required last 288 blocks on disk. Block pruning works during initial sync in the same way as during steady state, by deleting block files "as you go" whenever disk space is allocated. Thus, if the user specifies 550MB, once that level is reached the program will begin deleting the oldest block and undo files, while continuing to download the blockchain. For now, block pruning disables block relay. In the future, nodes with block pruning will at a minimum relay "new" blocks, meaning blocks that extend their active chain. Block pruning is currently incompatible with running a wallet due to the fact that block data is used for rescanning the wallet and importing keys or addresses (which require a rescan.) However, running the wallet with block pruning will be supported in the near future, subject to those limitations. Block pruning is also incompatible with -txindex and will automatically disable it. Once you have pruned blocks, going back to unpruned state requires re-downloading the entire blockchain. To do this, re-start the node with
-reindex. Note also that any problem that would cause a user to reindex (e.g.,
disk corruption) will cause a pruned node to redownload the entire blockchain. Finally, note that when a pruned node reindexes, it will delete any blk???.dat and rev???.dat files in the data directory prior to restarting the download. To enable block pruning on the command line:
- -prune=N: where N is the number of MB to allot for raw block & undo data.
Modified RPC calls:
getblockchaininfo now includes whether we are in pruned mode or not.
getblock will check if the block's data has been pruned and if so, return an
- getrawtransaction will no longer be able to locate a transaction that has a
UTXO but where its block file has been pruned. Pruning is disabled by default. Big endian support Experimental support for big-endian CPU architectures was added in this release. All little-endian specific code was replaced with endian-neutral constructs. This has been tested on at least MIPS and PPC hosts. The build system will automatically detect the endianness of the target. Memory usage optimization There have been many changes in this release to reduce the default memory usage of a node, among which:
Accurate UTXO cache size accounting (#6102); this makes the option -dbcache
precise where this grossly underestimated memory usage before
Reduce size of per-peer data structure (#6064 and others); this increases the
number of connections that can be supported with the same amount of memory
Reduce the number of threads (#5964, #5679); lowers the amount of (esp.
virtual) memory needed
Fee estimation changes This release improves the algorithm used for fee estimation. Previously, -1 was returned when there was insufficient data to give an estimate. Now, -1 will also be returned when there is no fee or priority high enough for the desired confirmation target. In those cases, it can help to ask for an estimate for a higher target number of blocks. It is not uncommon for there to be no fee or priority high enough to be reliably (85%) included in the next block and for this reason, the default for -txconfirmtarget=n has changed from 1 to 2. Privacy: Disable wallet transaction broadcast This release adds an option -walletbroadcast=0 to prevent automatic transaction broadcast and rebroadcast (#5951). This option allows separating transaction submission from the node functionality. Making use of this, third-party scripts can be written to take care of transaction (re)broadcast:
Send the transaction as normal, either through RPC or the GUI
Retrieve the transaction data through RPC using gettransaction (NOT
getrawtransaction). The hex field of the result will contain the raw hexadecimal representation of the transaction
The transaction can then be broadcasted through arbitrary mechanisms
Why are wallet.dat files in such an obscure place in Windows? How come we can't specify where those wallets should be located (ideally wherever we run the QT file from). Isn't it better if the wallet.dat file by default gets created in the SAME place as the executable is run from? It's OK if the blockchain still resides at c:\users\name\appdata\roaming.... but shouldn't the wallet.dat, the most important file of all, be located in a user definable location? And then also, shouldn't the file be named by it's currency shortcut (ie: btc-wallet.dat) instead of just wallet.dat? I think this whole issue with cryptocurrency wallets needs to be resolved. Willing to put up some ALTs (reddcoin and litecoin) to have this sorted once and for all (especially with the most important wallet of all for most users, the Bitcoin wallet bitcoin-qt.exe) In the meantime, how do I move/redirect the wallet.dat file so that it resides in a more secure location (USB stick or My Documents, etc)?
Looking to keep my bitcoin data portable and encrypted however the large amount of blockchain data is problematic. I'd like to use bitcoin, truecrypt and googledrive. Is this possible?
Hey there, so I'm looking to store my wallet.dat in a truecrypt volume located on my google drive. It looks like with the stock bitcoin windows app, I would have to move the entire data directory. This wouldn't be a problem if the blockchain wasn't so huge. Is there a more lightweight app that would do this? Perhaps a better way? The reason I'm having an issue is because to point Bitcoin.exe to my wallet.dat (which is located on a truecrypt volume in my googledrive folder) I have to point the entire data directory like so: bitcoin.exe -datadir=y:\Bitcoin The problem with that though is the blockchain data is HUGE and I don't want it filling up my googledrive. So I guess my questions are:
Is there a portable light weight version of the bitcoin app that would handle this better?
Is there a flag that won't redirect the ENTIRE bitcoin data folder and only point to where the wallet.dat file is?
Is there a way to just omit the blockchain data somehow?
Thanks in advance, sorry if this has been covered before. I did a search but nothing came up.
Bitcoin Core 0.10.0 released | Wladimir | Feb 16 2015
Wladimir on Feb 16 2015: Bitcoin Core version 0.10.0 is now available from: https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.10.0/ This is a new major version release, bringing both new features and bug fixes. Please report bugs using the issue tracker at github: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/issues The whole distribution is also available as torrent: https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.10.0/bitcoin-0.10.0.torrent magnet:?xt=urn:btih:170c61fe09dafecfbb97cb4dccd32173383f4e68&dn;=0.10.0&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.openbittorrent.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.publicbt.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.ccc.de%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.coppersurfer.tk%3A6969&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Fopen.demonii.com%3A1337&ws;=https%3A%2F%2Fbitcoin.org%2Fbin%2F Upgrading and downgrading How to Upgrade If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Bitcoin-Qt (on Mac) or bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (on Linux). Downgrading warning Because release 0.10.0 makes use of headers-first synchronization and parallel block download (see further), the block files and databases are not backwards-compatible with older versions of Bitcoin Core or other software:
Blocks will be stored on disk out of order (in the order they are
received, really), which makes it incompatible with some tools or other programs. Reindexing using earlier versions will also not work anymore as a result of this.
The block index database will now hold headers for which no block is
stored on disk, which earlier versions won't support. If you want to be able to downgrade smoothly, make a backup of your entire data directory. Without this your node will need start syncing (or importing from bootstrap.dat) anew afterwards. It is possible that the data from a completely synchronised 0.10 node may be usable in older versions as-is, but this is not supported and may break as soon as the older version attempts to reindex. This does not affect wallet forward or backward compatibility. Notable changes Faster synchronization Bitcoin Core now uses 'headers-first synchronization'. This means that we first ask peers for block headers (a total of 27 megabytes, as of December 2014) and validate those. In a second stage, when the headers have been discovered, we download the blocks. However, as we already know about the whole chain in advance, the blocks can be downloaded in parallel from all available peers. In practice, this means a much faster and more robust synchronization. On recent hardware with a decent network link, it can be as little as 3 hours for an initial full synchronization. You may notice a slower progress in the very first few minutes, when headers are still being fetched and verified, but it should gain speed afterwards. A few RPCs were added/updated as a result of this:
getblockchaininfo now returns the number of validated headers in addition to
the number of validated blocks.
getpeerinfo lists both the number of blocks and headers we know we have in
common with each peer. While synchronizing, the heights of the blocks that we have requested from peers (but haven't received yet) are also listed as 'inflight'.
A new RPC getchaintips lists all known branches of the block chain,
including those we only have headers for. Transaction fee changes This release automatically estimates how high a transaction fee (or how high a priority) transactions require to be confirmed quickly. The default settings will create transactions that confirm quickly; see the new 'txconfirmtarget' setting to control the tradeoff between fees and confirmation times. Fees are added by default unless the 'sendfreetransactions' setting is enabled. Prior releases used hard-coded fees (and priorities), and would sometimes create transactions that took a very long time to confirm. Statistics used to estimate fees and priorities are saved in the data directory in the fee_estimates.dat file just before program shutdown, and are read in at startup. New command line options for transaction fee changes:
-txconfirmtarget=n : create transactions that have enough fees (or priority)
so they are likely to begin confirmation within n blocks (default: 1). This setting is over-ridden by the -paytxfee option.
-sendfreetransactions : Send transactions as zero-fee transactions if possible
(default: 0) New RPC commands for fee estimation:
estimatefee nblocks : Returns approximate fee-per-1,000-bytes needed for
a transaction to begin confirmation within nblocks. Returns -1 if not enough transactions have been observed to compute a good estimate.
estimatepriority nblocks : Returns approximate priority needed for
a zero-fee transaction to begin confirmation within nblocks. Returns -1 if not enough free transactions have been observed to compute a good estimate. RPC access control changes Subnet matching for the purpose of access control is now done by matching the binary network address, instead of with string wildcard matching. For the user this means that -rpcallowip takes a subnet specification, which can be
a single IP address (e.g. 220.127.116.11 or fe80::0012:3456:789a:bcde)
a network/CIDR (e.g. 18.104.22.168/24 or fe80::0000/64)
a network/netmask (e.g. 22.214.171.124/255.255.255.0 or fe80::0012:3456:789a:bcde/ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff)
An arbitrary number of -rpcallow arguments can be given. An incoming connection will be accepted if its origin address matches one of them. For example: | 0.9.x and before | 0.10.x | |--------------------------------------------|---------------------------------------| | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.1 | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.1 (unchanged) | | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.* | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.0/24 | | -rpcallowip=192.168.* | -rpcallowip=192.168.0.0/16 | | -rpcallowip=* (dangerous!) | -rpcallowip=::/0 (still dangerous!) | Using wildcards will result in the rule being rejected with the following error in debug.log:
Error: Invalid -rpcallowip subnet specification: *. Valid are a single IP (e.g. 126.96.36.199), a network/netmask (e.g. 188.8.131.52/255.255.255.0) or a network/CIDR (e.g. 184.108.40.206/24).
REST interface A new HTTP API is exposed when running with the -rest flag, which allows unauthenticated access to public node data. It is served on the same port as RPC, but does not need a password, and uses plain HTTP instead of JSON-RPC. Assuming a local RPC server running on port 8332, it is possible to request:
In every case, EXT can be bin (for raw binary data), hex (for hex-encoded binary) or json. For more details, see the doc/REST-interface.md document in the repository. RPC Server "Warm-Up" Mode The RPC server is started earlier now, before most of the expensive intialisations like loading the block index. It is available now almost immediately after starting the process. However, until all initialisations are done, it always returns an immediate error with code -28 to all calls. This new behaviour can be useful for clients to know that a server is already started and will be available soon (for instance, so that they do not have to start it themselves). Improved signing security For 0.10 the security of signing against unusual attacks has been improved by making the signatures constant time and deterministic. This change is a result of switching signing to use libsecp256k1 instead of OpenSSL. Libsecp256k1 is a cryptographic library optimized for the curve Bitcoin uses which was created by Bitcoin Core developer Pieter Wuille. There exist attacks against most ECC implementations where an attacker on shared virtual machine hardware could extract a private key if they could cause a target to sign using the same key hundreds of times. While using shared hosts and reusing keys are inadvisable for other reasons, it's a better practice to avoid the exposure. OpenSSL has code in their source repository for derandomization and reduction in timing leaks that we've eagerly wanted to use for a long time, but this functionality has still not made its way into a released version of OpenSSL. Libsecp256k1 achieves significantly stronger protection: As far as we're aware this is the only deployed implementation of constant time signing for the curve Bitcoin uses and we have reason to believe that libsecp256k1 is better tested and more thoroughly reviewed than the implementation in OpenSSL.  https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/161.pdf Watch-only wallet support The wallet can now track transactions to and from wallets for which you know all addresses (or scripts), even without the private keys. This can be used to track payments without needing the private keys online on a possibly vulnerable system. In addition, it can help for (manual) construction of multisig transactions where you are only one of the signers. One new RPC, importaddress, is added which functions similarly to importprivkey, but instead takes an address or script (in hexadecimal) as argument. After using it, outputs credited to this address or script are considered to be received, and transactions consuming these outputs will be considered to be sent. The following RPCs have optional support for watch-only: getbalance, listreceivedbyaddress, listreceivedbyaccount, listtransactions, listaccounts, listsinceblock, gettransaction. See the RPC documentation for those methods for more information. Compared to using getrawtransaction, this mechanism does not require -txindex, scales better, integrates better with the wallet, and is compatible with future block chain pruning functionality. It does mean that all relevant addresses need to added to the wallet before the payment, though. Consensus library Starting from 0.10.0, the Bitcoin Core distribution includes a consensus library. The purpose of this library is to make the verification functionality that is critical to Bitcoin's consensus available to other applications, e.g. to language bindings such as [python-bitcoinlib](https://pypi.python.org/pypi/python-bitcoinlib) or alternative node implementations. This library is called libbitcoinconsensus.so (or, .dll for Windows). Its interface is defined in the C header [bitcoinconsensus.h](https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/0.10/src/script/bitcoinconsensus.h). In its initial version the API includes two functions:
bitcoinconsensus_verify_script verifies a script. It returns whether the indicated input of the provided serialized transaction
correctly spends the passed scriptPubKey under additional constraints indicated by flags
bitcoinconsensus_version returns the API version, currently at an experimental 0
The functionality is planned to be extended to e.g. UTXO management in upcoming releases, but the interface for existing methods should remain stable. Standard script rules relaxed for P2SH addresses The IsStandard() rules have been almost completely removed for P2SH redemption scripts, allowing applications to make use of any valid script type, such as "n-of-m OR y", hash-locked oracle addresses, etc. While the Bitcoin protocol has always supported these types of script, actually using them on mainnet has been previously inconvenient as standard Bitcoin Core nodes wouldn't relay them to miners, nor would most miners include them in blocks they mined. bitcoin-tx It has been observed that many of the RPC functions offered by bitcoind are "pure functions", and operate independently of the bitcoind wallet. This included many of the RPC "raw transaction" API functions, such as createrawtransaction. bitcoin-tx is a newly introduced command line utility designed to enable easy manipulation of bitcoin transactions. A summary of its operation may be obtained via "bitcoin-tx --help" Transactions may be created or signed in a manner similar to the RPC raw tx API. Transactions may be updated, deleting inputs or outputs, or appending new inputs and outputs. Custom scripts may be easily composed using a simple text notation, borrowed from the bitcoin test suite. This tool may be used for experimenting with new transaction types, signing multi-party transactions, and many other uses. Long term, the goal is to deprecate and remove "pure function" RPC API calls, as those do not require a server round-trip to execute. Other utilities "bitcoin-key" and "bitcoin-script" have been proposed, making key and script operations easily accessible via command line. Mining and relay policy enhancements Bitcoin Core's block templates are now for version 3 blocks only, and any mining software relying on its getblocktemplate must be updated in parallel to use libblkmaker either version 0.4.2 or any version from 0.5.1 onward. If you are solo mining, this will affect you the moment you upgrade Bitcoin Core, which must be done prior to BIP66 achieving its 951/1001 status. If you are mining with the stratum mining protocol: this does not affect you. If you are mining with the getblocktemplate protocol to a pool: this will affect you at the pool operator's discretion, which must be no later than BIP66 achieving its 951/1001 status. The prioritisetransaction RPC method has been added to enable miners to manipulate the priority of transactions on an individual basis. Bitcoin Core now supports BIP 22 long polling, so mining software can be notified immediately of new templates rather than having to poll periodically. Support for BIP 23 block proposals is now available in Bitcoin Core's getblocktemplate method. This enables miners to check the basic validity of their next block before expending work on it, reducing risks of accidental hardforks or mining invalid blocks. Two new options to control mining policy:
-datacarrier=0/1 : Relay and mine "data carrier" (OP_RETURN) transactions
if this is 1.
-datacarriersize=n : Maximum size, in bytes, we consider acceptable for
"data carrier" outputs. The relay policy has changed to more properly implement the desired behavior of not relaying free (or very low fee) transactions unless they have a priority above the AllowFreeThreshold(), in which case they are relayed subject to the rate limiter. BIP 66: strict DER encoding for signatures Bitcoin Core 0.10 implements BIP 66, which introduces block version 3, and a new consensus rule, which prohibits non-DER signatures. Such transactions have been non-standard since Bitcoin v0.8.0 (released in February 2013), but were technically still permitted inside blocks. This change breaks the dependency on OpenSSL's signature parsing, and is required if implementations would want to remove all of OpenSSL from the consensus code. The same miner-voting mechanism as in BIP 34 is used: when 751 out of a sequence of 1001 blocks have version number 3 or higher, the new consensus rule becomes active for those blocks. When 951 out of a sequence of 1001 blocks have version number 3 or higher, it becomes mandatory for all blocks. Backward compatibility with current mining software is NOT provided, thus miners should read the first paragraph of "Mining and relay policy enhancements" above. 0.10.0 Change log Detailed release notes follow. This overview includes changes that affect external behavior, not code moves, refactors or string updates. RPC:
f923c07 Support IPv6 lookup in bitcoin-cli even when IPv6 only bound on localhost
b641c9c Fix addnode "onetry": Connect with OpenNetworkConnection
Start Bitcoin, now you will see all the files are created in the new data directory. Linux. By default Bitcoin will put its data here: ~/.bitcoin/ You need to do a "ls -a" to see directories that start with a dot. If that's not it, you can do a search like this: find / -name wallet.dat -print 2>/dev/null Mac. By default Bitcoin will put its ... Where can I find the blockchain, wallet.dat, etc. on each of the operating systems Bitcoin-Qt supports? Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Start Bitcoin, now you will see all the files are created in the new data directory. Linux . By default Bitcoin will put its data here: ~/.bitcoin/ You need to do a "ls -a" to see directories that start with a dot. If that's not it, you can do a search like this: find / -name wallet.dat -print 2>/dev/null Mac No there is no wallet.dat. Auxilly there is no Bitcoin or Litecion folder in Roaming. I have hidden and system files visible. – Sebastian Xawery Wiśniowiecki Mar 20 '16 at 10:18. I connot find any wallet.dat file with Windows Search and also with Total commander search tool. Any ideas? – Sebastian Xawery Wiśniowiecki Mar 20 '16 at 12:45 @NickODell want TeamViewer to my PC? – Sebastian ... Digital money that’s instant, private, and free from bank fees. Download our official wallet app and start using Bitcoin today. Read news, start mining, and buy BTC or BCH.
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